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The failed war on drugs has made vulnerable communities victims of deadly new psychoactive substances

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new psychoactive substances

A group of international researchers last month warned that new psychoactive substances (NPSs) such as synthetic cannabinoids Spice and K2 could be the cause of greater harm to users than more traditional mind-altering substances and stimulants including MDMA and cocaine. Presenting the findings of one the first major studies into the physiological and psychological effects of NPSs at the British Science Festival in the UK city of Hull in September, Professor Colin Davidson from the University of Central Lancashire, who led the research, revealed his team had discovered that so-called “legal highs” are more dangerous than traditional illegal drugs, and are in some cases more likely to induce conditions such as psychosis and schizophrenia. This will likely come as little surprise to anybody who has seen images of homeless Spice users on the streets of Britain, but should set alarm bells ringing, not least due to the fact that these types of drugs are increasingly being consumed by some of the most vulnerable members of society.

Despite bans on the substances in some countries such as the UK, NPSs can still be obtained quickly and easily in most places, regardless of whether restrictions on their sale and possession are in force. Hundreds of different variants of so-called legal highs are available for purchase on dark net marketplaces, the surface web, social media platforms, and from illicit street dealers, who have added them to the range of substances they sell in regions where they are banned. In most cases, NPSs will be much cheaper to buy than the substances they are intended to mimic, be that cocaine, cannabis or opioids.

Prior to the ban in the UK, which came into force in May 2016, campaigners expressed concern that outlawing the drugs would push users to start taking what were at the time viewed as more hazardous substances, such as heroin and crack cocaine. Evidence suggests that quite the opposite has happened, with vulnerable users such as prisoners and the homeless using legal highs at ever increasing levels, attracted by the relatively cheap oblivion they offer compared to other drugs. Many addicts who have been hooked on traditional hard drugs have said substances such as Spice are the worst things they have ever taken.

As is the case with much of the illicit fentanyl flooding into the US, the majority of legal highs that are sold in the West are produced by Chinese drugs factories, many of which have few qualms about selling their products to dealers in countries in which their distribution and/or possession is banned. While the Chinese government has paid lip service to stemming the flow of NPSs produced on its soil being shipped to other countries, occasionally listing new batches of the drugs as controlled substances, its interventions seem to have had little real impact on supply, with the distribution of fentanyl in the US and substances such as Spice and Monkey Dust in Europe remaining at a near constant.

When they first emerged, a range of drug users were attracted to trying so-called legal highs, either on account of the ease of their availability, low cost, or the novelty of sampling something different. But over the past few years, evidence suggests wealthier drug users have turned back to consuming traditional substances such as cocaine and ecstasy as more has been has been learned about the negative effects of NPSs, leaving vulnerable and marginalised people the most likely to take legal highs. A 2017 report from the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction revealed an increase in the number of vulnerable people injecting NPSs, and said that so-called legal highs continued to represent a considerable public health challenge for European countries. The study noted that while “negative consumer attitudes” may have had an impact on demand for NPSs across the EU, problematic use of the drugs was becoming more apparent among vulnerable communities, resulting in an increase in associated levels of both physical and mental health problems.

Far from pushing vulnerable addicts to use what were once perceived to be more harmful substances, a tightening of the law around so-called legal highs in some countries appears to have had the opposite effect, with increasing numbers of marginalised people turning to NPSs on account of their low price, ease of access and the total oblivion they offer. The irony here is that if it were not for the decades-long failed war on drugs, the scientists behind NPSs would have no reason to create them. As such, it is hardly surprising that banning these substances has not solved the problems they created. As things stand, it would seem as though years of poorly thought-through global drugs policy has resulted in the creation of a whole new class of substances that appear to be devastating our most vulnerable communities.

 

 

 

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Opinion

The fact that stories about jihadists being trafficked into Europe do not make headline news is deeply troubling

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jihadists being smuggled into Europe

Astonishingly, we are now living through a time when reports of Islamist extremists being smuggled into mainland Europe from the Middle East and Africa by a people smuggling gang headed up by a Daesh supporter barely warrant any mention at all across international mainstream media. Italian police last week said they had arrested 15 members of a Mediterranean human trafficking network that may have been responsible for sneaking jihadists into Europe, along with contraband including cannabis and illicit tobacco. After originally being reported by Italian daily Il Giornale, the story was picked up by only a handful of English-language news outlets, suggesting that these types of incidents have now become so commonplace that members of the public no longer find them remarkable.

It is alarming to say the least that when applying the “man bites dog” test to stories such as these, it would appear that the majority of editors and journalists working across print, online and broadcast media deem the trafficking of dangerous ideologues into Europe to have become so routine that reporting around such incidents is no longer diverting enough to engage the attention of their audiences.

As it is likely that many readers will be unfamiliar with the story, it is worth taking a moment to go over its main points. Italian investigators said the trafficking network, which shipped migrants from Tunisia to Sicily using speedboats, was broken up after they received a tip-off from a reformed Islamist who was serving time in an Italian jail. The former extremist said he provided the intelligence that led to the gang members’ arrests to prevent the establishment of an army of “kamikaze” Islamists in Italy, suggesting that those smuggled into the country by the network may have had the desire and capacity to launch suicide attacks.

In an arrest warrant, police said the service the gang offered was particularly attractive to people who were wanted by law enforcement authorities in Tunisia, especially those who were being sought for questioning in relation to their connections with “religiously-motivated terrorist groups”. Revealing that those detained included both Italian and Tunisian nationals, investigators said they were still looking for a number of other suspects connected with the gang, who are wanted for questioning in relation to human trafficking offences. They include the group’s suspected leader, who is said to be a Tunisian man who has posted Daesh propaganda on his Facebook profile and is being sought for alleged terrorism offences.

The lack of reporting around the case is troubling for a number reasons, not least of which is a growing concern that the collapse of Daesh’s caliphate in Iraq and Syria might lead to an increase in the number of extremists linked to the group attempting to return to Europe. But what is perhaps more worrying is the fact that this is happening at a time when huge numbers of migrants are still being allowed to flood into Europe mostly unchecked from the Middle East and Africa. While the numbers are falling, migrant crossings of the Mediterranean into Europe topped 100,000 for the fifth year running in 2018. At the beginning of last year, Interpol warned that as many as 50 Daesh fighters had managed to enter Italy illegally after crossing the Mediterranean on traffickers’ boats. With the number of former militants fleeing Daesh’s former heartland on the rise, it would not be surprising if demand for such crossings increases, and plots such as the one uncovered by police in Italy result in more Islamists entering European countries while politicians and the media are looking the other way.

At the same time as all this is happening, governments across Europe appear willing to go to great lengths to keep right-wing activists out of their countries, such as the Canadian YouTuber Lauren Southern and the US white supremacist Richard Spencer. While both of these individuals openly harbour views that many people find extremely offensive, banning them from entering European countries while standing back and doing nothing as an unknown number of potential Islamist extremists are allowed to slip in illegally unchecked is utter madness. Europe must of course take its fair share of refugees who are fleeing war and persecution in the countries from which genuine asylum seekers are fleeing, but the time has surely come to insist that those who wish to make a claim for help do so legally.

Preventing migrants from illegally crossing the Mediterranean and encouraging them to apply for asylum through the proper channels will both ensure that only those in genuine need receive the help they deserve, and that governments in Europe have a vital opportunity to do all they can to ensure that extremists who mean to do their people harm are stopped from entering their countries. If things are allowed to continue the way they are, it will likely only be a matter of time before an Islamist who has slipped into Europe illegally while disguised as a migrant does something that truly is newsworthy.

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The crime and exploitation social justice enthusiasts appear happy to ignore

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social justice enthusiasts

Social media has for years now been rammed with politically correct right-on types who enjoy little more than informing anybody who cares to listen about the virtuous manner in which they live their lives, and how the choices they make are helping to save the world. This might take the form of boasting about how they became vegan, not only due to the fact that eating meat and dairy products is so very cruel to animals, but also because living as a carnivore is terribly bad for the environment. Similarly sanctimonious individuals might make a big song and dance about their insistence that everything they buy is “ethically sourced”.

While this type of behaviour is highly admirable and is absolutely to be encouraged, it is not uncommon to find that the people who shout loudest about how woke they are in areas such as these actually make multiple life choices and purchasing decisions that support many forms of criminality and exploitation that they appear to be quite content to ignore. Often, merely scratching the surface of the lives of the scrupulously politically correct reveals that they indulge in easily avoidable behaviour that is not difficult to link back to forced labour and violence.

Drugs

While illicit drugs are of course in and of themselves illegal, middle class substance abuse is rife across the western world. So much so in fact that the head of London’s Metropolitan Police last year criticised the hypocrisy of people with outwardly progressive politics thinking little of the consequences of their after-dinner line of cocaine. Cressida Dick called out members of the chattering classes who “happily think about global warming and fair trade, and environmental protection and all sorts of things, [such as] organic food”, and then go on to take a drug linked to death, violence and suffering both in the UK and in the countries in which it is produced.

Earlier this week, Britain’s National Crime Agency warned that drug dealers on the dark web are actually marketing their products as “vegan” and “ethically friendly” in an attempt to attract this type of user. Dick is of course entirely correct; pontificating about fair trade coffee and bananas prior to taking a drug whose very presence in your country has left behind it a trail of blood and misery is surely the very height of hypocrisy.

Food

The perennially virtuous are often very keen on using food as a means by which to signal their progressive attitudes towards other sentient beings and the wellbeing of the planet in general. Leaving aside the fact that those who complain about factory farming are typically nowhere near as vocal when it comes to barbaric religious slaughter methods that ought to be outlawed – vegetarians, vegans and those who like to boast about how everything they eat is ethically sourced can be surprisingly ignorant about the role forced labour and crime can play in getting the food they eat on their table.

For years now, campaigners have been warning that the seafood industry is built largely on a form of modern slavery that sees workers paid little or no money to put in gruelling 20-hour shifts on fishing trawlers while being regularly beaten, in some cases to death. Despite this, it remains rare to hear anybody voice concern that the prawns they buy at their local supermarket might have been caught by a victim of forced labour. While it is of course unpleasant to think that a chicken could have spent its life in factory farm conditions, it seems curious that many consumers appear more worried about whether or not their eggs are free range than the possibility that a Thai trawler worker may have been killed while catching the shrimp they plan to eat for their supper.

Technology

It is an often quoted cliché that anti-capitalist hipsters who complain about the evils of consumerism and greed tend often to do so on social media using $1,000 smartphones while sitting in Starbucks drinking an absurdly overpriced latte. But all joking aside, the number of people who claim to care about social justice who use connected devices produced by workers toiling in slave-like conditions that would most likely be illegal in their own countries remains breath-taking. While it may be the case that Apple was last year handed an award for its efforts to eradicate modern slavery from its supply chains, the iPhone maker and its fellow hardware manufacturers have a long way to go when it comes to being able to guarantee that their products have not been made by people working in illegal conditions.

Regardless, the fact that revelations about abuses in the company’s supply chains still arise with alarming regularity seems to be of little concern to those who use their Apple products to signal their virtue on social media platforms, some of which have been known to promote human trafficking and paedophilia.

All of the above examples have been widely reported on by mainstream media outlets over recent years, but it appears that for some with progressive politics, there are certain instances where practicing the social justice doctrine they preach is simply too inconvenient.

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Opinion

The real crime is turning a blind eye to forced marriage in the first place

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turning a blind eye to forced marriage

An investigation conducted by the Times of London has revealed that the British government is asking UK victims of forced marriage who are sent overseas to cover the cost of their own rescue. According to the paper, victims who muster the courage to escape their fate before being wed to men they do not know are told they must repay the cost of their repatriation to the UK should they not be able to come up with the necessary funds immediately. According to the Times, the British Foreign Office confiscates victims’ passports until they have repaid their “debt”, and even adds 10% interest in the event they are unable to settle in full within six months.

The paper’s revelations have rightly prompted British Foreign Secretary Jeremy Hunt to call for an investigation into its findings, as well as drawing condemnation from commentators expressing disgust that the government could behave in such an abhorrent fashion. But while it is of course an outrage that young girls who have been betrayed by their own families should be forced to pay to secure their freedom and safety, the real scandal is that authorities are not intervening before they are sent overseas to be married to total strangers in the first place.

Unfortunately for them, it would appear that the cultural shift brought about by the “Me Too” and “Time’s Up” movements has yet to benefit victims of forced marriage, who are sent to countries they might never have been to, in most cases by their own relatives, to be forcibly married to typically much older men they have not met. As has been the case in the past with Asian paedophile grooming gangs and suspected cases of female genital mutilation, it is thought that police and social workers in Britain have been reluctant to intervene in cases of forced marriage through fear of being labelled “racist”. A blind eye is said to often be turned when female students from certain cultural backgrounds disappear from schools or colleges for no good reason, with authorities apparently just expecting this to happen with girls from some minority communities.

In August of last year, a separate investigation conducted by the Times found that the UK Home Office had been issuing visas to foreign men who had forcibly married young British girls, some of whom had been raped and made pregnant abroad in an apparent attempt to make their husbands’ applications for permission to enter the UK more likely to succeed. It was claimed that victims had been sent to countries such as Pakistan, Bangladesh and India to be made pregnant by their new husbands, before being returned back to Britain to give birth. At this point, victims’ husbands would apply for a UK visa, using the fact that their wives and children were already in the UK as leverage.

Despite evidence suggesting that this and similar practices have been routinely taking place in Britain for decades, the first forced marriage conviction in the UK was only secured in 2015, highlighting how woeful authorities’ response to the problem has been. While forced marriage is illegal in Britain, with offenders found guilty of the crime facing up to seven years behind bars, convictions are far and few between, suggesting that hundreds if not thousands of young girls are being forced  into marriages against their will with little hope of intervention.

With victims often too afraid to come forward, and police and social workers seemingly too afraid to intervene due to political correctness, it looks likely that these girls will continue to be exploited unless there is real institutional change. If any progress is to be made, police, teachers and social workers must be trained how to spot the signs that young girls might be at risk of forced marriage. At the same time, the stigma of calling out such practices must end, with any suggestion that doing so is in any way racist being dismissed.

If we are to be candid, the practice of forced marriage can involve or lead to all manner of other crimes, including child sexual exploitation, kidnap, rape, modern slavery and illegal immigration. Is it not “racist” to turn a blind eye when these offences occur within minority communities when they would in most cases be doggedly investigated and prosecuted when found in society at large? It should go without saying that victims of forced marriage should not have to pay for their own rescue, and one would hope that the revelations uncovered by the Times will lead to this rather cruel policy being brought to an end as soon as possible. However, it is undoubtedly more important that western societies do not allow cultural relativism or fear of being labelled racist prevent the investigation of a revolting crime that causes victims immeasurable harm and suffering.

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