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Britain is right to send economic migrants who attempt to cross the English Channel illegally back to France

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cross the English Channel illegally

Having received a barrage of criticism over his response to a massive uptick in the number of migrants attempting to enter the UK illegally by crossing the English Channel towards the end of 2018, British Home Secretary Sajid Javid last week attempted to regain control of what he has described as “a major incident” by announcing a new action plan agreed with his French counterpart, Christophe Castaner. The pair said they would jointly invest £6 million ($7.8 million) in new security equipment to help customs officials, coastguard officers and police prevent migrants from making the perilous journey in the first place. More importantly, they revealed that any would-be asylum seekers who successfully make it across the water will now be sent back to France under the terms of the Dublin Regulation.

As if to underline how seriously Javid is now taking the problem, the UK Home Office said a small number of migrants who arrived illegally in Britain by boat at the end of last year were returned to France on the morning the announcement was made. While campaigners on the left will no doubt complain that this new action plan is inhumane and cruel, it is in fact quite the opposite, and will if anything help those who are in genuine need of asylum.

As 2018 drew to a close, the number of migrants attempting to make the crossing from France to the UK in flimsy dinghies rose significantly, reportedly partly on account of the fact that people smuggling gangs had told their customers that doing so will become a lot more difficult once Britain leaves the EU at the end of March. Across the course of the whole year, 539 migrants tried to make their way across the English Channel illegally, with 80% of these attempts being made in the final three months of the year, according to UK Home Office figures.

Although comparative numbers for the previous year have not been made publically available, the surge in attempted crossings towards the end of 2018 suggests that this was indeed the beginning of a major incident that required a swift and decisive response. First and foremost, the English Channel is one of the busiest and most-dangerous waterways on the planet, making it a wonder that no migrants have been known to have lost their lives while attempting to cross it to date. Authorities in France have said they would be surprised if migrants have not died while trying to make their way across the water, unbeknownst to authorities, highlighting how important it was for the UK and French government’s to take decisive and meaningful action.

As has been proved so successfully by Australia, one of the best ways of preventing migrants from risking their lives while attempting to travel across treacherous stretches of water illegally is to make it clear that they will be sent back to where they came from if they are successful in doing so. Once it has been established in migrant communities that this will happen as a matter of course, paying thousands of euros to people smugglers for what is very likely to be an unintended return journey to Britain will likely seem a less desirable course of action. Which leads rather nicely onto the next point.

The majority of migrants caught attempting to cross the English Channel at the end of last year were Iranians. While it is inarguable that Iran’s human rights record leaves plenty to be desired, those fleeing the country are not doing so to escape war. They are seeking to make their way to the UK in search of a better life, and in many cases have the funds needed to pay people smugglers to help them reach their desired destination. These are in the majority of cases economic migrants, not refugees fleeing war, persecution and violence. Even when it comes to the few who might be genuine refugees in need of shelter, one has to ask why they have ended up in France attempting to reach the UK.

Under the Dublin Regulation, refugees are quite rightly required to seek asylum in the first EU country in which they arrive. To be candid, observers could be forgiven for finding it strange that the first priority of some refugees supposedly fleeing innumerable horrors in their countries of origin is to make their way north through various safe European countries in the hope of being smuggled into the UK. Of course every country must take in their fair share of genuine asylum seekers, but this must be done in a fair and manged fashion, which is the whole point of the Dublin Regulation.

As well as discouraging migrants from embarking on the dangerous journey across the English Channel, making it clear that any who do will be sent back will also seriously undermine the business model of people smuggling gangs, who make millions of euros by exploiting the refugees and economic migrants who are desperate to reach the UK. The recent uptick in Channel crossings is said to have seen smuggling gangs use “motherships” to take migrants halfway across the Channel, before dropping them off in small dinghies to make the rest of the journey to the southern English coast by themselves.

For providing this service, smuggling gangs are able to charge their human cargo many thousands of euros per head. People smugglers’ businesses, be they operating across the English Channel or further south across the Mediterranean, are largely based on the premise that once migrants make it to their destination of choice, the government of the country in which they arrive will not send them back. Perhaps if the European Union had adopted a similar action plan to the one unveiled by Javid last week, many of the problems associated with the migrant crisis in Europe, including the rise of the far right, could have been avoided.

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Misery, not hedonism, appears to be driving increased drug use among Gen Xers and Boomers

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Over the past few years, numerous surveys have revealed that Millennials and members of Generation Z are less keen on the consumption of illegal drugs and alcohol than their immediate forebears. In fact, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s most recent Youth Risk Behaviour Survey showed that alcohol, drug and cigarette consumption have been falling consistently among American teens for at least the past decade. The study also showed that young people in the US are having less sex. Until recently, similar trends were being observed in the UK, where alcohol and drug consumption among young people have also been following a general downward trend for several years now.

Yet despite this, the number of drug-related deaths in both countries is on the rise. Back in August, data from the UK’s Office for National Statistics (ONS) revealed that drug poisoning deaths rose by 16% in 2018. Last August, the CDC said that drug overdoses were estimated to have killed just over 72,280 people in the US in 2017, which represented an increase of some 10% on the previous year. All of this suggests that members of Generation X and Boomers are accounting for a growing proportion of both nations’ problem drug use and drug-related overdose deaths; a trend that appears to be being borne out both statistically and anecdotally.

Back in 2017, the UK’s ONS revealed that people aged between 40 to 49 had the highest rate of drug misuse deaths across England and Wales for the first time ever in 2016. This led to people of that age group being dubbed the “Trainspotting generation” after the Irvine Welsh novel that was popular during their youth. According to ONS researchers, the emerging trend of older people suffering a higher a number of drug overdose deaths was down to the fact that many addicts in the 40 to 49 age group were beginning to lose lengthy battles with substance abuse habits that might have been begun decades ago due to poor physical and mental health.

In a more recent assessment released this August, the ONS said that “people born in the 1960s and 1970s… [were] dying from suicide or drug poisoning in greater numbers than any other generation”. The ONS said that while the reasons for rising drug and suicide deaths in this age group were complex, a high number of those who lost their lives lived in some of the most deprived parts of England.

While it might be easy to conflate drug problems among Boomers and Generation Xers with the hedonistic times in which they came of age, other studies have also suggested that this might be too simplistic a view. In a paper published in April, researchers at Vanderbilt University in the US state of Tennessee noted that high levels of depression, suicidal ideation, drug use and alcohol abuse identified among middle-aged white Boomers was beginning to impact the youngest members of Generation X. Lauren Gaydosh, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Health and Society and Public Policy Studies at Vanderbilt, forecast that midlife mortality may begin to increase across a range of demographic groups, adding: “Public health efforts to reduce these indicators of despair should not be targeted toward just rural whites, for example, because we’re finding that these patterns are generalised across the population.”

Earlier this month, new figures published by the UK’s National Health Service (NHS) revealed that the number of English pensioners aged over 90 being admitted to hospital after suffering from psychological and behavioural disorders following cocaine use had risen ten-fold over the past decade. This came almost a year after similar data revealed that the number of over-45s in the UK seeking medical attention after suffering serious mental health problems as a result of drug use had risen by 85% over the previous decade. Speaking with the Guardian at the time, Ian Hamilton, Associate Professor of Addiction at the University of York, said: “[Older people] are more likely to have had longer drug-using careers, so they will need longer in specialist drug treatment. However, unfortunately treatment services are being directed to offer abstinence-based services rather than maintaining this group on substitute drugs like methadone.”

Both ONS studies and the Vanderbilt paper suggest that rising problem drug use and overdose deaths among older people in both the UK and the US have little to do with them being children of the second summer of love or having grown up believing heroin chic was the epitome of cool. Instead, evidence indicates that the growing number of people experiencing problems with drugs in later life appear to be among the most vulnerable in society, suggesting that labelling them with nicknames such as the “Trainspotting generation” might at the very least be treating the problems they face with undue flippancy.

While it may be the case that some Boomer or Gen X drug users might have been living with a habit for decades, it would seem that many are pushed to use illicit substances as a result of the undesirable life situations in which they have found themselves, and not as part of ill-advised efforts to relive the hedonism of their youth.

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Why Black Friday and Cyber Monday are still Christmas come early for counterfeiters and hackers

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Black Friday and Cyber Monday are still Christmas come early for counterfeiters

Quite why the retail industry continues to insist on cannibalising its most profitable period of the year by staging Black Friday and Cyber Monday events in the lead up to Christmas remains a mystery to many. But while the benefits of slashing prices and effectively bringing the holiday season shopping period forward to November may seem questionable to some observers, there is little doubt that these discounting extravaganzas generate huge sales, even if these do come at the expense of those made later in the year.

In many cases, it is debatable as to just how good a bargain shoppers get during Black Friday and Cyber Monday sales events, with several retailers using smoke and mirrors to make it appear as though the deals they offer are better than they really are, but there is no denying that these types of retail phenomena have captured large swathes of the public’s imagination. So much so in fact that shoppers become so focussed on bagging a bargain during such bonanzas that they fail to take the usual precautions they would under typical circumstances.

Busy retail periods traditionally offer fruitful opportunities to sellers of counterfeit goods. Evidence suggests these are multiplied during sales events such as Black Friday and Cyber Monday, during which consumers are encouraged to believe they must act speedily to secure the best of the bargains available. Consequently, some shoppers spend less time than they should thinking about the source of the goods they are buying, having been whipped up into a frenzied state by the psychological pressures these types of events are designed to exert.

Back in July, a survey of 2,000 US internet shoppers conducted by anti-piracy and counterfeit protection firm Red Points revealed that many consumers feel under pressure to snap up a bargain during Amazon’s Prime Day sales event, which shares many characteristics with Black Friday and Cyber Monday. That pressure, Red Points said, results in consumers making hasty decisions and failing to carry out the research into potential purchases they would usually conduct. The poll found 60% of respondents said they had felt under pressure to buy items more quickly than they otherwise might when shopping during the Prime Day event. Panel members said they suspected that “33% more of the products they had bought [on Prime Day] were counterfeit”.

The pressure that these types of sales events exert on shoppers creates the perfect environment for counterfeiters, allowing them to target shoppers whose defences are impaired by the psychological stresses they are put under. As well a using ecommerce platforms such as Amazon, eBay and Alibaba to offer fake goods during sales events such as Black Friday and Cyber Monday, criminals also exploit such occasions to fraudulently obtain consumers’ personal information using fake apps and websites. Last year, a report from online security firm RiskIQ warned members of the public that hackers were planning to capitalise on Black Friday and Cyber Monday by creating fake smartphone apps and bogus landing pages to fool consumers into downloading malware, use compromised sites or hand over their login credentials and credit card information.

Demographically, Red points warned last year in a separate report to the one mentioned above that millennials’ risky shopping habits leaves them particularly vulnerable to counterfeiters during major shopping events. This was put down to the fact that the vast majority of millennials prefer shopping online to visiting bricks-and-mortar retail outlets. A poll conducted by Red Points also revealed that 27.4% of millennials admitted to predominantly shopping impulsively online, and that those impulsive buyers are prone to following online promotional offers on social media, where fraudsters and hackers often target potential victims. According to data gathered by IP Watchdog, millennials lost an estimated $482 million buying fake items on Black Friday in 2017.

While people who buy counterfeit goods during sales events such as Black Friday and Cyber Monday in most cases do so inadvertently, a new study suggests that some consumers are willing to accept the risk that they might be purchasing a bogus item as a factored in hazard while seeking out bargains online. According to a poll commissioned by US trade organisation the Toy Association ahead of the holiday season, many parents are willing to take a risk by making a purchase from unverified online vendors if they believe they might get a bargain or secure an item they might not be able to source elsewhere. The survey revealed that the top reasons parents would consider buying toys from unverified sellers included toys being out of stock everywhere else (32%), or if the toy was exactly what their children wanted (31%).

For those unwilling to risk it, consumers can take several steps to make sure they are not hoodwinked during events such as Black Friday and Cyber Monday by only buying from websites and sellers they are familiar with, or failing that, by doing their research into sources they do not know. Fundamentally however, the best way of steering clear of counterfeiters and hackers during these types of sales extravaganzas is to resist the pressure they seek to create and keep in mind that if a deal appears too good to be true, chances are it will be a scam.

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The voracious greed of sports organisations is driving TV piracy

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greed of sports organisations is driving piracy

The international rise of online TV streaming services has created a cash bonanza for sports broadcasting rights holders. So much so in fact, that a recent report from research firm Rethink TV forecast that media sports rights revenues will hit $85.1 billion by 2025, rising from $48.6 billion last year. Rights to football broadcasts alone are expected to make $31.9 billion by 2025, up from $12.8 billion in 2018. Yet despite this incredibly healthy outlook, some in the sports broadcasting industry are worried that rising levels of piracy might be about to bring on a reversal in their fortunes, and expose them to the types of risks and profit loss that the film and music industries have known all too well over the past few decades.

Speaking earlier this month at the Leaders Week Sport Business Summit in London, boss of Qatar-based beIN Media Group Yousef Al-Obaidly told delegates that the sports media rights “bubble” was about to burst as a consequence of the growth of broadcast piracy across the globe. “I’m here to tell you how the endless growth of sports rights is over,” Al-Obaidly said. “Not only that, but in certain cases, rights values are going drop off a cliff, and the very economic model of our industry is going to be re-written.”

Al-Obaidly has more reason than most to be pessimistic about the effect piracy is having on the global sports broadcast rights market, having fought a protracted battle with Saudi-based pirate TV channel beoutQ and Riyadh-headquartered satellite provider Arabsat, which jointly stand accused of barefacedly stealing beIN’s content and repackaging it as their own. Back in January, beIN published a “dossier of evidence” on a special website that outlined how the two organisations had stolen its sports and entertainment content on “an industrial scale”.

Almost one year on, beoutQ is continuing to repackage beIN’s content as its own. Last month, a report commissioned by football’s world governing body Fifa confirmed “without question that beoutQ’s pirate broadcasts have been transmitted using satellite infrastructure owned and operated by Arabsat”. The study was published after BeIN said in June that it had laid off a fifth of its workforce in Qatar, citing Saudi piracy for a downturn in revenues. Around the same time, pay-TV operator OSN blamed piracy in the Middle East and North Africa for its decision to close its cricket channel, saying in a statement: “Illegal streaming sites, pirate IPTV decoders within OSN’s licensed territories, has made it difficult for OSN to continue offering [the service].”

In September, Eurojust announced that it had led an international coalition of judicial and police authorities in a day of action that resulted in the shutdown of a pirate TV network that broadcast stolen content to tens of millions of people across the globe, including programming taken from sports live-stream service Dazn. Earlier this month, the UK’s Premier League revealed it had successfully taken legal action against a man for selling illegal streaming devices that provided viewers with access to Premier League broadcasts repackaged by beoutQ, suggesting that rights holders might now focus their attention on smaller scale pirates having had little success in pursuing larger pirate networks. This conviction came after police in France said in June that they had arrested five people after receiving a complaint about the distribution of pirated broadcast content from Canal+ Group, beIN and RMC Sport.

While stories such as these might secure a moderate level of media attention, rights holders are deluded if they believe they can prosecute their way out of problem. Sports content piracy will continue to rise while consumers are charged to access content they want to see at a price they are unwilling to pay. Factor into this the fact that the broadcast of sports is often fragmented across numerous different paid-for platforms, often forcing consumers to pay multiple subscriptions to access the content they want, and it is not difficult to see why the pirates are thriving.

Sports organisations would do well to take a leaf out of the music industry’s book and explore delivery options and pricing models that are more palatable to the fans who consume their content, and ultimately account for a large proportion of their revenue. According to figures collated by London-based MUSO, music was only the third most-pirated medium in 2018, thanks in no small part to the popularity of online streaming platforms such as Spotify, Deezer and Apple Music. Rather than seeking to sustain a status quo that actively encourages piracy, the sports industry should look to establish a broadcasting model that will protect the interests of rights holders over the long term, as the music industry has done. If it fails to do so, Al-Obaidly’s gloomy predictions are likely to be proved prescient.

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