It was reported earlier this week that UK Parliament’s Youth Select Committee had been told that drug gangs are grooming children to transport and sell substances such as heroin and crack cocaine on their behalf by buying them meals at fast food outlets such as fried chicken restaurants. After befriending young people and treating them to portions of chicken and chips, gang members are said to ask their victims to return the favour by helping them ply their illicit trade, according to written evidence from the Youth Justice Board of England and Wales.
The warning came just weeks after community group London Grid for Learning launched a campaign to raise awareness of the manner in which co-called county lines gangs are using this method to recruit young people to sell drugs for them. A poster produced by the organisation intended to be displayed in “chicken shops” warned young people that anybody who befriends them and buys them food will most likely ask that they do something to repay that generosity.
County lines activity, which involves urban UK gangs recruiting young people to travel to small towns and rural areas to sell drugs on their behalf, is widely recognised as major driver of Britain’s spiralling violent crime crisis. Currently, young people are being stabbed to death across the UK on an almost daily basis. Children recruited into these types of gangs are not only encouraged to dish out violence to rival dealers themselves, but can also face the prospect of serious physical reprisals if they fail to do what their gang leaders expect of them or lose the drugs they have been charged with selling.
What with there being a clear link between the grooming of children by county lines gangs in fast food restaurants and the violent world victims can go on to find themselves caught up in, one might imagine that any action by the British government to tackle the issue would be considered a positive step. Not so.
Given the evidence that gangs are targeting children in British fast food restaurants in the manner outlined above, a UK government campaign involving anti-knife violence messages being printed on boxes used by chicken shops seems an inordinately sensible idea. The British Home Office has teamed up with restaurant chains including Chicken Cottage, Dixy Chicken and Morley’s, creating food boxes that direct diners to explore the stories of young people who have turned their backs on violent crime to pursue more worthwhile activities.
As these types of eateries can be locations at which children and young people can be groomed into a life of violent crime, what better place to direct messages that might prevent them from becoming victims? But no. Numerous campaigners and opposition politicians are falling over themselves to label the initiative as racist, despite the fact that it makes no overt suggestion that any one ethnicity is more prone to becoming involved in violent crime than another.
Opponents of the idea argue that it plays on an old trope that some people of colour have a particular fondness for fried chicken, extrapolating from this the implication that the campaign is implicitly linking violent crime with not being white, and being from an afro-Caribbean background in particular. The fact that people who are convicted of carrying a knife in England and Wales disproportionately come from non-white backgrounds aside, immediately screaming “racist” from the side-lines when efforts are made to reduce the butchery that is currently blighting the UK’s streets helps nobody, except those looking to score cheap political points.
As demonstrated, clear evidence suggests that these types of fast food outlets are breeding grounds for violent gang activity, regardless of the actual or perceived ethnicity of their patrons. As such, it surely makes sense to target anti-violent crime messages at the often young people who frequent them. Or should the government place similar messaging on napkins used for afternoon tea at the Savoy?
With limited resources, it makes sense for the UK government to target campaigns such as this where they are most likely to be effective. Reductively calling policymakers racist for doing so is the worst type of political point scoring, and does nothing to further the fight against the tsunami of violent crime that is currently enveloping the UK. Instead of trying to find fault with any particular issue or policy on the grounds of race in any given circumstance, critics of the initiative would perhaps do well to come up with their own ideas about tackling the issues highlighted in the Youth Justice Board of England and Wales’ evidence to the Youth Select Committee.
The voracious greed of sports organisations is driving TV piracy
The international rise of online TV streaming services has created a cash bonanza for sports broadcasting rights holders. So much so in fact, that a recent report from research firm Rethink TV forecast that media sports rights revenues will hit $85.1 billion by 2025, rising from $48.6 billion last year. Rights to football broadcasts alone are expected to make $31.9 billion by 2025, up from $12.8 billion in 2018. Yet despite this incredibly healthy outlook, some in the sports broadcasting industry are worried that rising levels of piracy might be about to bring on a reversal in their fortunes, and expose them to the types of risks and profit loss that the film and music industries have known all too well over the past few decades.
Speaking earlier this month at the Leaders Week Sport Business Summit in London, boss of Qatar-based beIN Media Group Yousef Al-Obaidly told delegates that the sports media rights “bubble” was about to burst as a consequence of the growth of broadcast piracy across the globe. “I’m here to tell you how the endless growth of sports rights is over,” Al-Obaidly said. “Not only that, but in certain cases, rights values are going drop off a cliff, and the very economic model of our industry is going to be re-written.”
Al-Obaidly has more reason than most to be pessimistic about the effect piracy is having on the global sports broadcast rights market, having fought a protracted battle with Saudi-based pirate TV channel beoutQ and Riyadh-headquartered satellite provider Arabsat, which jointly stand accused of barefacedly stealing beIN’s content and repackaging it as their own. Back in January, beIN published a “dossier of evidence” on a special website that outlined how the two organisations had stolen its sports and entertainment content on “an industrial scale”.
Almost one year on, beoutQ is continuing to repackage beIN’s content as its own. Last month, a report commissioned by football’s world governing body Fifa confirmed “without question that beoutQ’s pirate broadcasts have been transmitted using satellite infrastructure owned and operated by Arabsat”. The study was published after BeIN said in June that it had laid off a fifth of its workforce in Qatar, citing Saudi piracy for a downturn in revenues. Around the same time, pay-TV operator OSN blamed piracy in the Middle East and North Africa for its decision to close its cricket channel, saying in a statement: “Illegal streaming sites, pirate IPTV decoders within OSN’s licensed territories, has made it difficult for OSN to continue offering [the service].”
In September, Eurojust announced that it had led an international coalition of judicial and police authorities in a day of action that resulted in the shutdown of a pirate TV network that broadcast stolen content to tens of millions of people across the globe, including programming taken from sports live-stream service Dazn. Earlier this month, the UK’s Premier League revealed it had successfully taken legal action against a man for selling illegal streaming devices that provided viewers with access to Premier League broadcasts repackaged by beoutQ, suggesting that rights holders might now focus their attention on smaller scale pirates having had little success in pursuing larger pirate networks. This conviction came after police in France said in June that they had arrested five people after receiving a complaint about the distribution of pirated broadcast content from Canal+ Group, beIN and RMC Sport.
While stories such as these might secure a moderate level of media attention, rights holders are deluded if they believe they can prosecute their way out of problem. Sports content piracy will continue to rise while consumers are charged to access content they want to see at a price they are unwilling to pay. Factor into this the fact that the broadcast of sports is often fragmented across numerous different paid-for platforms, often forcing consumers to pay multiple subscriptions to access the content they want, and it is not difficult to see why the pirates are thriving.
Sports organisations would do well to take a leaf out of the music industry’s book and explore delivery options and pricing models that are more palatable to the fans who consume their content, and ultimately account for a large proportion of their revenue. According to figures collated by London-based MUSO, music was only the third most-pirated medium in 2018, thanks in no small part to the popularity of online streaming platforms such as Spotify, Deezer and Apple Music. Rather than seeking to sustain a status quo that actively encourages piracy, the sports industry should look to establish a broadcasting model that will protect the interests of rights holders over the long term, as the music industry has done. If it fails to do so, Al-Obaidly’s gloomy predictions are likely to be proved prescient.
Human fallibility is the secret behind CEO fraud scammers’ continuing success
Global law enforcement agency Interpol used an international conference on cyber crime earlier this month to launch an awareness-raising campaign about CEO Fraud. CEO fraud, referred to by some as business email compromise (BEC) fraud or “whaling”, is a form of phishing that involves criminals tricking company employees who are authorised to issue payments into transferring large sums of money to accounts controlled by fellow fraudsters. Oftentimes, first contact will be made in an email in which a scammer assumes the identity of a senior executive to ask that an urgent payment be made. The criminals behind CEO fraud scams typically do their homework on the companies they target, using their knowledge of the businesses they set out to dupe to convince the employees they contact that they are who they say they are.
CEO fraud scams are also carried out over the phone, with fraudsters calling employees while pretending to be a senior manager, and can often involve scammers forging invoices and other forms of paperwork in order to secure the payments they seek to extract from their victims. Whether the scam is carried out by phone or by email, fraudsters will exploit the seniority of the executive or manager they are impersonating to pressure and intimidate the employees they target to transfer funds into an account they control, typically claiming the payment they are requesting is of the utmost importance and should be treated in the strictest of confidence.
While CEO fraud is by no means a new phenomenon, companies large and small continue to lose huge sums of money to the criminals behind it, despite the launch of numerous awareness-raising campaigns such as the one announced by Interpol earlier this month. According to the FBI, losses from CEO fraud scams run into the billions of dollars every year.
Just weeks before Interpol launched its campaign, the US Better Business Bureau published its own report on CEO fraud, noting that instances of the crime are rising, and that such scams are estimated to have cost American businesses and other organisations more than $3 billion since 2016. Commendable as such interventions may be, they appear to have little effect, with previous efforts launched in countries including the UK and the US apparently having scant impact on CEO fraud scammers’ ability to con large sums of money out of companies that appear to be struggling to come up with ways in which to deal with the crime.
It would be easy to assume that fraudsters who carry out these types of scams would lean towards targeting smaller firms that might have less sophisticated fraud detection systems in place, but several recent cases show this is very far from the case. In a sophisticated variation of CEO fraud, a Lithuanian man was able to fleece an astonishing $100 million from Facebook and Google in a BEC scam. In March, Evaldas Rimasauskas pleaded guilty to sending the two technology giants huge bogus invoices while posing as an Asian computer hardware maker. Using convincing fake email accounts to submit his invoices, Rimasauskas and his associates “forged invoices, contracts, and letters that falsely appeared to have been executed and signed by executives and agents of the victim companies”.
In another example of a blue chip firm falling victim to this type of scam, the Toyota Boshoku Corporation admitted last month that it had been relieved of some four billion yen ($37 million) in a BEC fraud. The firm perhaps understandably chose to reveal few other details about its massive loss. If companies such as these can be duped by CEO fraudsters, what hope is there for smaller firms, particularly at a time when the information and technology available to fraudsters is growing and advancing at a breakneck speed?
Back in August 2017, the Times of London reported that organised crime gangs were staking out LinkedIn profiles in order to gather intelligence that could be used in BEC scams. Earlier this year, police in Ireland warned workers against posting too much information about themselves on all forms of social media to avoid it being used by CEO fraud scammers. In a new worrying twist on the scam, the Wall Street Journal reported in August that an unnamed executive in the UK had been tricked into sending €220,000 ($243,000) to a bank account controlled by fraudsters after they used artificial intelligence technology to mimic the voice of his boss on the phone and demand that a payment be made.
While proposed confirmation of payee systems that require banks to check the name on recipient accounts before making a transfer of funds might go some way towards reducing the success rates currently enjoyed by BEC scammers, the fact that fraudsters rely predominantly on human error makes it unlikely we will see an end to this form of fraud anytime soon. Quite the opposite in fact. No matter how many awareness-raising campaigns are launched by well-meaning organisations, the wealth of information and technology that is now available to the often organised criminals behind this type of fraud leaves them perfectly placed to exploit the human fallibility of CFOs and account department workers.
Airbnb continues to profit from the global sex trafficking trade
At the end of September, Airbnb unveiled a new special portal through which law enforcement officials can request information about users of the short-term property rental service. The company said the portal will provide investigators with a dedicated channel they can use to submit legal requests for information relating to information it might hold on individuals of potential interest. While Airbnb made no mention of the types of information it might be providing to police through the service, the firm said in a statement that the portal would complement the work it does on a daily basis to keep its hosts, guests and wider communities safe.
Although short-term rental properties such as those offered via Airbnb can be useful to those carrying out a number of illegal activities, they have recently become most synonymous with human trafficking and prostitution, with organised criminal gangs increasingly turning temporary accommodation into so-called “pop-up brothels”. As has been the case with almost every other industry, the internet has had a disruptive effect on the oldest profession in the world, not only helping sex workers and the pimps and gangs that control them reach a larger number of potential customers through escort sites, but also by allowing them to avoid the attention of law enforcement agencies by arranging short-terms lets online to turn into pop-up brothels.
It is a problem of which Airbnb is all too aware. Back in February of last year, the company teamed up with US anti-trafficking NGO Polaris to launch an initiative intended to prevent its properties from being used as pop-up brothels. Polaris and Airbnb vowed to crack down on the practice of pimps and traffickers renting out short-let properties for a few days or weeks before moving on to another one before police can act against them. Airbnb said it would also work with Polaris to train its staff on how to spot the signs of modern slavery and human trafficking.
Realistically though, short of installing cameras in each one of its properties or carrying out regular spot checks on tenants, Airbnb can actually do very little to stop its rentals being used in this manner. Unfortunately for the company, the problem has become a global one, with Airbnb properties the world over apparently being used for the purposes of prostitution.
Only last month, the Otago Daily Times reported that a New Zealand man returned from his travels around Asia to discover that his property had been used for sex work by the people who rented it from him during July and August through Airbnb. The man, who asked the paper to maintain his anonymity, said he came back to his property to find it stinking of cheap perfume, and later received a visit from a man who asked: “Where are the girls?” In June of last year, the UK’s Mirror reported that a couple who used Airbnb to rent out their home in Amsterdam returned to their property to find strange stains all over their furniture, and were later told by police that their address had been listed in multiple ads on sex and prostitution websites.
Mail Online reported in July 2017 that British police had warned that human traffickers were renting out Airbnb properties across the UK before advertising the services of prostitutes put to work in them online. Speaking at the time, Sergeant Matt Puttock, the Tactical Lead for Sexual Exploitation at Gloucestershire Police, said: “These are by their nature often quite hidden places. It’s very transient as they often hire Airbnb places or other serviced apartments.”
While incidents of Airbnb properties being used by prostitutes are oftentimes covered by the media with something of a nudge and a wink, the spreading phenomenon of pop-up brothels is a major driver of the exploitation of young women and girls who are trafficked across the globe in order to be forced into selling sexual services. In a report published in 2018, Britain’s All-Party Parliamentary Group on Prostitution and the Global Sex Trade cautioned that pop-up brothels “are changing migration patterns with huge numbers of women, particularly from Eastern Europe, being brought in by [trafficking] groups to service British men who have an expectation of an absolute right to buy sex”.
The report recommended that the UK government should issue guidance for the short-term letting sector on preventing trafficking for sexual exploitation, which should specifically address the responsibilities of companies such as Airbnb.
For its part, Airbnb does at least appear to be attempting to address the problem with the launch of its partnership with Polaris and the establishment of its law enforcement agency portal. Commendable as both these endeavours may be however, neither will likely have any real impact on the number of the firm’s rentals that are used as pop-up brothels, and will do little to protect the vulnerable woman and girls who are exploited in the properties whose letting out the firm profits from so handsomely.
- The voracious greed of sports organisations is driving TV piracy
- Woman arrested in Malaysia for attempting to smuggle heroin hidden in durian fruit
- US police use sophisticated cryptocurrency tracing techniques to smash world’s largest dark web paedophile film network
- Two men charged with poaching offences after investigators in Florida seize 600 turtles
- Europol launches campaign to catch women fugitives accused of serious and organised crime
9 February 2018
9 February 2018
8 February 2018
28 November 2017
28 November 2017
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